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The current vision of global climatic changes stresses on the interlinked action of many factors, often more evident at regional scales. Polar regions are among the areas most sensitive to perturbations of the climate: through connections involving ocean, atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and cryosphere, they respond to, amplify, and drive changes elsewhere in the Earth system, so that understanding their role is essential. Peculiar characteristics of Polar Regions contribute to modify the energy and radiation budget, and the characteristics of the polar atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), increasing relevance at regional level of coupling processes between components of the climate system, especially in the coastal region. In particular, the long polar night, the sea-ice and snow coverage, favouring the persistency of stable atmospheric conditions, and the local and mesoscale circulation interactions, all affect the status and variability at different time scales of components of the regional climate system. Predicting future conditions of the polar regions is the goal of the Polar Prediction Project and of one of its key elements, the Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP, http://www.polarprediction.net/yopp.html), scheduled to take place from mid-2017 to mid-2019). This requires the scientific knowledge of their present status as well as a process-based understanding of the mechanisms of change. The parameterization of physical processes in regional and global hydrodynamical numerical models of the atmosphere is not yet enough accurate for a correct representation of all components of the climatic system and of their connections, the knowledge of which is needed to determine the role of polar regions in the global climate. As an example, more extended and integrated dataset are required to improve the parameterization of the ABL, for complex orography areas such as the polar coastal regions. The general scope of this project is to improve the understanding of the surface-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges at an Antarctic coastal site in the Ross Sea through continuous and accurate measurements of the atmospheric parameters, and development and verification of multiscale modelling, and through these activities, to address some of the relevant questions included in the roadmap for Antarctic and Southern Ocean science for the next two decades and beyond. Measurements will be carried out year-round at the new Korean Jang Bogo Antarctic Research Station (JBS), located at the coast of Terra Nova Bay, in the vicinity of the Italian Mario Zucchelli Station. Measurement and analysis of radiation components, atmospheric constituents and energy fluxes, meteorological and micrometeorological parameters, will be implemented jointly by Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), CNR and UNIFI, in a way similar to the collaboration already active in the Arctic. Such implementation will be very useful to close a gap in the global climate observation system (GCOS) and contribute to WMO programs providing scientific data and information on meteorological and radiation regimes, vertical structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere.
The dataset contains 500-2000 MHz brightness temperature measurements gathered by the Ultra-Wideband Software Defined Microwave Radiometer (UWBRAD) during the Ice Sheet and Sea Ice Airborne Microwave eXperiment (ISSIUMAX) in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. The published dataset is in ascii format and consists of geolocated nadiral brightness temperature measurements collected over 12 sub-bands whose central frequencies are 560, 660, 820, 900, 1180, 1240, 1370, 1500, 1630, 1740, 1860, and 1950 MHz. Only measurements with a viewing angle within 5 deg with respect to nadir are reported.
Anthropogenic microparticles (AMs) were found for the first time in specimens of Trematomus bernacchii collected in 1998 in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) and stored in the Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank. Most of the identified AMs were fibers of natural and synthetic origin. The natural AMs were cellulosic, the synthetic ones were polyester, polypropylene, polypropylene/polyester, and cellulose acetate. The presence of dyes in the natural AMs indicates their anthropogenic origin. Five industrial dyes were identified by Raman spectroscopy with Indigo occurring in most of them (55%). Our research not only adds further data to the ongoing knowledge of pollution levels in the Antarctic ecosystem, it provides an interesting snapshot of the past, highlighting that microplastics and anthropogenic fiber pollution had already entered the Antarctic marine food web at the end of the ‘90 s. These findings therefore establish the foundations for understand the changes in marine litter pollution over time.