Type of resources
The IPICS-2kyr-Italia project, through multiple perforations in the Antarctic ice sheet, aims to provide new data on climatic variability over the last 2000 years. The first phase of the project has been focused on the extraction of 5 ice cores samples of snow and ice, during the summer Antarctic campaign (November 2013 - January 2014). The drilling site 'GV7', 70°41'S, 158°52'E; 1950 m, T= – 31.8°C. Drill up to 250 - 500m. ice core snow/ice GV7 (A) S 70°41'09.4'' E 158°51'45.7'' 88,2m ice core snow/ice GV7 (B) S 70°41'09.4'' E 158°51'45.7'' 247,2m ice core snow GV7 (D) S 70°41'10.2'' E 158°51'46.3'' 12,09m ice core snow GV7 (E) S 70°41'10.2'' E 158°51'46.3'' 5,63m ice core snow GV7 (F) S 70°41'10.2'' E 158°51'46.3'' 5,31m
The project aims to determine the mass balance components in the Dome C drainage area and to study and monitor local glaciers in Victoria Land. The goal is to define the mass balance of the ice cap through the analysis of its altimetric variation with satellite systems and through the determination of the values of the positive (snow accumulation) and negative (flow of glaciers to the anchor line) components of the balance mass. Trought the study of the snow cores (collected as part of the ITASE project (XVII/XVIII expedition)), was determined the annual stratigraphy and evaluated the snow accumulation, the isotopic temperature and the chemical composition of the snow cores. Moreover analysis of geophysical data (GPR, GPS, RES, spectroradiometry) and remote sensing data were carried out for the study of the variability of snow accumulation, of the dynamics of the ice cap and of the flow of glaciers to the anchor line.
The project aims to estimate the current mass balance of glaciers and in particular of the Antarctic ice sheet by studying the space-time variations of the balance of snow accumulation through the integration of meteo-climatic and glaciological data. Analysis of weather-climatic and snow measurements collected by AWS stations (Dome C, C3, High Priestley, Talos Dome and a Nansen Ice Sheet) using sensors for measuring snow transport and measuring poles. Snow radar data collection of the Dumont d’Urville-Dome C traverse. Analysis of the chemical and isotopic composition of the collected snow samples. Analysis of satellite data to define the path of the Talos Dome-Dome C-Vostok-Dome B-Dome A crosspiece. High resolution chemical / isotopic analyzes (samples in trenches) for the study of post-depositional diffusion / re-emission processes that occur in the part of the snow closest to the surface. Study of the spatial variability of the snow accumulation at the TD site and along the ITASE traverse. Continuation of the analysis of the samples and geophysical data collected in the previous ITASE traverses.
The main goal of our proposal is to characterize the surface radiative budget as well as cloudiness which features at the Argentine Bases Marambio and Belgrano II during the YOPP-SH Special Observing Period (SOP) as well as the YOPP Consolidation Phase. Specific objectives to secure our main goal during the SOP will be: 1 - develop a compact Radiation Measurement UNIT (RMU) robust enough to allow continuous measurements in harsh environment through which to make shortwave, longwave observations as well as to record status of the sky. 2 - secure UV measurements at both stations. 3 - develop specific tools to analyse on a daily basis (weakly for clouds) collected data and extract parameters of interest. For radiation these will include QA/QC SW and LW downwelling and upwelling fluxes, diffuse and direct components of solar radiation, UV spectral flux and doses. For clouds these will include, on a continuous base, cloud fraction derived both from radiometric measurement and sky camera observations, cloud type and cloud effect on SW radiation. In addition cloud base (or cloud ceiling) will be obtained by routine observations performed at the two stations. From UV measurements columnar ozone content will be also derived. Moving forward to YOPP consolidation phase, we plan to: 1 - extend dataset and its analysis, start to collect information on seasonal and inter-annual variability, determine Cloud radiative Forcing (CRF) 2 - perform extensive comparison between automatic and visual cloudiness observation methods. They being very useful to better understand quality and value of historical datasets at the two stationsù 3 - make comparison with cloudiness regime of Ross Sea and Antarctic Plateau. Make similar comparison for UV fluxes in the Peninsula and at Concordia.
Data of the precipitation fallen during the summer months (November-December-January) on four expeditions, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18, and 2018-19, in the Terra Nova Bay area, were obtained using a vertically pointing radar, disdrometer and snow gauge. The vertical pointing METEK Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR) was installed in MZS at the end of November 2015. It records Doppler velocity spectra every 10 s at 32 range gates. The radar gate spacing was set to 100 m allowing the profiler to sound heights ranging from 100 to 3100 m above the surface. The raw K-band power spectra, collected by the MRR, were processed applying the method proposed by Maahn and Kollias (2012) to correct for noise and aliasing effects, making them suitable for snow observation. A Thies CLIMA laser disdrometer (LPM), has been operational since December 2014.The disdrometer can simultaneously count and measure the size and fall velocity of hydrometeors. A Total Rain weighing Sensor (TRwS) manufactured by MPS system was installed during the december 2018 - January 2019 campaign within the YOPP observing period. The TRwS is a total rain/snowfall weighing gauge with an orifice area of 400 cm2, a depth accuracy of 0.01 mm of w.e. and a one -minute sampling time resolution (Savina and others, 2012). The TRwS was protected by an alter shield in order to minimize wind effect over the accumulation inside the instrumentation.
The research program aims to continue accurate measurements of surface radiative fluxes downwelling and upwelling at Dome-C, within the network Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN https://bsrn.awi.de/), in order to provide broadband measurements of solar radiation short wave (in the three downwelling components direct, diffuse, global and in the global reflected fluxes) and thermal radiation (emitted from the atmosphere and from the surface). These measurements performed throughout the year provide complete information of the radiative regime in the East Antarctic Plateau, as well as its seasonal and interannual variability, and the radiative fluxes are an important input parameter for both the mass balance and regional climate models. In addition, the surface irradiance datasets are required to validate and calibrate at least 10-11 different satellite observations.
The aim of the MAss LOst in wind fluX (MALOX) project is to better understand the phenomenon of snow transport over a coastal area characterized by strong winds. MALOX relies on a multi-disciplinary approach based on both in situ and remote sensing measurements. Satellite data (MODIS, CALIPSO) analysis will provide spatial and vertical extension of the transport phenomenon. In situ microphysical, thermodynamic, and radiative observations will be aimed at determining the surface and column integrated water content, and characterizing the wind flux at local scale during the summer. Observations will be carried out also during the winter period to observe stronger transport events and to create a complete dataset which will provide a qualitative estimate of the mass loss due to blowing snow sublimation through the difference between the water content measured at two sites along the main wind path on steep slopes, one upstream of the convergence zone of the katabatic flux (Larsen Glacier, LS, 74°57'S 161°46'E) and the other downstream, near the coast (Inexpressible Island, InS, 74°56’S 163°41’E).
The Ice-ClimaLizer research investigates the role of two Antarctic bioconstructional and bioindicator organisms (bryozoan and coralline algae), responsible of promoting marine biodiversity, as proxies of environmental conditions (temperature, light intensity, pressure, oxygen, conductibility and pH). An experimental laboratory has been placed in Tethys Bay (Ross Sea) at 25.5 m deep. The project will compare 1 year of environmental data obtained via continuous recording (every hour) by probe with reconstructed data obtained via geochemical proxies of skeletons/thalli of the investigated species. Data are collected from November 2018 to November 2019. The investigation directly correlates the biomineralogical characteristics of the species with the environmental parameters in order to clarify the importance of these organisms also for palaeo-reconstructions and their adaptive potential (resilience or loss) in the future Antarctic oceans.